What is a bundle of spinal nerves called?
The spinal cord ends in the lumbar spine, where the nerves extend in a bundle of strands called cauda equina, so called because the mass looks like a horse tail. The nerves here provide motor and sensory function to the legs, intestines, genitals, and bladder.
What are the nerves in your spine called?
The spinal nerves are numbered according to the vertebrae above which it exits the spinal canal. The 8 cervical spinal nerves are C1 through C8, the 12 thoracic spinal nerves are T1 through T12, the 5 lumbar spinal nerves are L1 through L5, and the 5 sacral spinal nerves are S1 through S5. There is 1 coccygeal nerve.
What runs down through your spine?
Spinal cord and nerves: The spinal cord is a column of nerves that travels through the spinal canal. The cord extends from the skull to the lower back. Thirty-one pairs of nerves branch out through vertebral openings (the neural foramen). These nerves carry messages between the brain and muscles.
What is the cauda equina?
The cauda equina is the sack of nerve roots (nerves that leave the spinal cord between spaces in the bones of the spine to connect to other parts of the body) at the lower end of the spinal cord. These nerve roots provide the ability to move and feel sensation in the legs and the bladder.
What are the 6 types of spinal nerves?
In humans there are 31 pairs: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each pair connects the spinal cord with a specific region of the body.
What is dura meter?
Listen to pronunciation. (DER-uh MAY-ter) The tough outer layer of tissue that covers and protects the brain and spinal cord and is closest to the skull. The dura mater is one of the three layers that form the meninges.
Where is T2 and T3 on spine?
T2 vertebrae: the posterior aspect of the upper arms. T3 vertebrae: the pectoral area in the chest. T4, T5, T6, T7, & T8 vertebrae: the remaining muscles in the chest and trunk of the body.
What does T7 nerve control?
The nerves in the area of a vertebra control specific parts of the body. For example, the 7th cervical nerve (C7) in the neck area controls the triceps (the muscle in the upper arm), while the thoracic nerves (T2 through T7) control the chest muscles.
What is an arachnoid?
Definition. Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid-filled sacs that are located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, one of the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
What is this cerebrum?
The largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, or halves, called the cerebral hemispheres. Areas within the cerebrum control muscle functions and also control speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning.
What is spinal dura?
The dura mater, sometimes called the dura, is the outermost layer of the meninges. The dura is normally a tough connective tissue. The CSF is contained within the subarachnoid space, between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater layers.
What does cisterna magna mean?
The cisterna magna is the space between the inferior margin of the vermis and the posterior rim of the foramen magnum. The normal cisterna magna measures between 3 mm and 8 mm, and mega cisterna magna (MCM) is diagnosed when it reaches 10 mm or more.
What is a posterior fossa cyst?
Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts are enclosed by the pia and arachnoid layers of the meninges, and their contents have the same consistency as CSF. They do not communicate with the fourth ventricle or with the subarachnoid space in the posterior fossa. They are more commonly detected by routine prenatal ultrasound.
What is a Retrocerebellar cyst?
Posterior fossa cystic malformations are diversely classified with considerable overlap without therapeutic relevance. These cysts posterior to the cerebellum, presenting in children younger than 5 years, are labeled developmental retrocerebellar cysts (DRCCs) under a new classification in relation to neuroendoscopy.
What causes enlarged cisterna magna?
Causes of an enlarged cisterna magna include cerebellar hypoplasia, communicating hydrocephalus, and normal variation. Cerebellar hypoplasia is a frequent finding in the trisomies and therefore a careful search should be made for associated cardiac anomalies, growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.
What is mega cisterna magna symptoms?
The majority of patients are asymptomatic; however, variable neurodevelopmental outcomes, including delayed speech and language development, motor development delay, visiospatial perception difficulties, and attention problems, has been observed in some patients.
What is the treatment for mega cisterna magna?
Magnetic resonance imaging midsagital and transverse scans: mega-cisterna magna. Olanzapine treatment was started at a dosage of 20 mg/day on the first day of the admission to hospital and increased to 30 mg/day on the 13th day. But no significant improvement was observed.
Is enlarged cisterna magna normal?
Our results suggest that isolated enlargement of the cisterna magna to more than 10 mm is associated with normal pregnancy and neonatal outcome.
Which condition is associated with the presence of blood in the cisterna magna?
Sometimes the septa are bowed laterally by the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage extending posterior to the vallecula (Figure 9). Blood in the cisterna magna has previously been shown to have a high positive predictive value for development of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus.
Is Mega cisterna magna a cyst?
Cystic or cyst-like malformations of the posterior fossa represent a spectrum of disorders, including the Dandy-Walker malformation, vermian-cerebellar hypoplasia, mega cisterna magna, and arachnoid cyst.
How can you tell the difference between cisterna magna and arachnoid cyst?
arachnoid cyst: can be difficult to distinguish from a mega cisterna magna. epidermoid cyst: often shows a heterogeneous/dirty signal on FLAIR and restricted diffusion. cerebellar atrophy / cerebellar hypoplasia. Dandy-Walker malformation: vermis not intact.